The following was compiled to demonstrate the ability of GreenZyme to interact with salts, and use the salinity to create synergies in the change of polarity of oil, promoting detachment from solid surfaces.
Extract SPE 107129
The adaptability to salts and salinity: Usually, surfactants are poorly adaptive to water of great salinity or high content of metallic divalent cations, such as magnesium and calcium, which always is the case for most formation waters.
The adaptability to Brine Water: In experiment for adaptation to salinity, sodium chloride was mixed in the 8% modified enzyme solution. For improved performance, measurement pointed to 0.5-10% NaCl and the optimal 0.5-1%.
The adaptability to Calcium: In experiment for adaptation to Ca2+, CaCl2 was added into the 8% modified enzyme solution. Data preferred CaCl2 and 0.05-1.0 g/L and the optimal ranged 0.05 to 0.4 g/L for better performance. The upper limit is 1.0 g/L. The range is just the situation of most reservoir waters.
The adaptability to Magnesium: In experiment for Mg2+, MgCl2 was employed in the 8% GreenZyme solution. It was observed that MgCl2 at 0.05 to 0.4 g/L and the optimun below 0.2 g/L would improve performance.
Experiments showed that Mg2+ makes more impact on performance than Ca2+.
Extract: SPE 193388
This study demonstrates the EOR potential of Controlled Salinity (CS) water and Controlled Salinity Bio-Surfactant (CSBS) application to improve oil production by strategic injection design for efficient application. Hence, we have shown that production can be significantly enhanced through early intervention. The cost and problems associated with conventional water-flooding can be averted and well life can be efficiently managed. Also, the results of this study will help improve understanding of the underlying mechanisms of CS and Bio-Surfactants application in EOR processes.
From Solubility test, we have shown that GreenZyme (protein-enzyme) can be used at relatively high salinity condition typical of reservoir, as well as low salinity environments for EOR. The results of emulsification activity investigated show that GreenZyme can emulsify crude oil and different salinity with GreenZyme having more efficiency in high salinity brine within a short contact time. This demonstrates the ability of GreenZyme to interact with salts and use them for the crude mobilization effects.
The results of Interfacial Tension (IFT) measurements shot that IFT reduction is possibly on the of the mechanisms enzyme protein enhance oil production during the flooding process. The Interfacial Tension reduction effect of GreenZyme is pronounced in secondary recovery mode.